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英语阅读一目十行,找准关键字
信息来源: 发布者: 发布时间:2011-06-28
  在文章的浏览(即略读,skimming)过程中,对文中信息重要性的判断可以帮助读者快速有效地了解段落的大意。在浏览过程中,读者可以通过寻找“信号词”来区分重要信息和非重要信息。以下列出的是阅读过程中常见的几类“信号词”。
   
    1. 以下词组提示下文所涉及的重要信息:The main / important point / conclusion / reason….The point to note here…
   
    2. 以下词组提示了下文的结构框架: There are three major reasons…
   
    3. but 和 however表示对比,常常用来提示重要信息,例如:The rising birth rate is not due to increased fertility, but to a sharp decline in the death rate.
   
    4. 在文中提问可以突出问题后的答案,提示读者答案中有重要信息,例如:
   
    Why is a piped water supply so important? Disease due to contaminated water is a common cause of death in childhood.
   
    5. 有时,为了保证读者完全理解自己的观点,作者会在文中反复提出自己的观点,例如:
   
    Death control can be achieved autonomously. In other words, the death rate can be cut without anything else changing.
   
    6. 文章的结论通常是非常重要的,因此,读者要在文中寻找提示结论的“信号词”,例如:Thereforethe result In conclusionwe can concludeOne of the primary conclusions
   
    7. 举例是为了帮助读者理解某一个观点,因此,文中的例子不是浏览文章时的重要信息。在阅读过程中,以下词组提示读者下文是举例部分信息。  For example/instancelike      Such asthese include To illustrateamong these are
   
    有时,作者也会用破折号或括号来提示举例信息,例如:  The developing countries are dependent on cash crops – sugar, coffee, cacao, cotton.
   
    Precipitating/violent/unexpected factors are those which reduce the food supply (droughts, floods, wars, epidemics)…
   
    在段落浏览时,读者在看到信号词后,应不断对下文信息作出相应的判断,例如:
   
    The main reason for (提示:下文信息重要) the reduction in the death rate in the developing world has been improved public health measures. For example, (提示:下文信息不重要,仅仅是为了用来证明前面的观点) in Sri Lanka the death rate was halved over ten years by spraying the mosquitoes which carry malaria.
   
    Why (提示:问题的答案中有读者应该关注的重点) is it so easy to cut the death rate in this way and yet so hard to reduce the birth rate? One answer (提示:这只是众多答案中的一种,并不是最重要的。) is that public health measures can be very cheap. Anti-malarial spraying is inexpensive. But this is not the important point (提示:but后面的是非常重要的信息). For birth control programmes to be successful, a change in attitude is required, whereas death control can be achieved autonomously. In other words, (提示:这里是作者想要强调的重要信息) the death rate can be cut without anything else changing.
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